FCPS-I Syllabus

GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

Anatomical nomenclatureTerms of position, direction and relationshipDivisions of the body according to the regions and organ systems.
General outline of the nervous systemGeneral disposition of the white and grey matterGeneral disposition of the meningesGeneral plan of the somatic and autonomic nervous systemsdermatomes and myotomes.
Blood-vascular system with general outline of the circulationsystemic and pulmonary circuitsportal system and foetal circulation.
Salient features of the skullcranial fossae and vertebral column.

The anatomy of the newborn and the childspecial features of the skull as a wholeearfaceneckvertebral columnthorax andabdomen.

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELLS OF THE BODY

Concept of the cell as the structural, functional and genetic unit of the bodyComposition of protoplasmDivision into cytoplasm and nucleusRole of macromolecules in the structural organization of the cellCell components, their role in cell functionDiversity of cell morphology as related to the varied functional demands.Physical activities of the living cellintracellular movements,cellular locomotionendocytosis and exocytosisCell cycle andcell divisionDNA and RNA structure and protein synthesis.Basic concepts of the principles of transport through cell membranemembrane potential and action potential.

STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE TISSUES OF THE BODY

The muscular tissue
Structural and functional differences between the smooth, skeletal and cardiac musclesFine structure of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres, and its relationship to the mechanism of contractionSpecialized conducting tissue of the heart.

The neural tissue 
The neuronmorphology of the perikaryon and its processes.Coverings of the axons in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous systemTypes of neuralgia and their functionsProcess of myelination in the peripheral nerves and the central nervous systemAxon terminals and synapsesNerve fibre degeneration and regeneration.

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Definition of immunityImmune system and its functions.Morphology of lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.Responses of T and B lymphocytes to antigensOverview of the lymphocyte circulationGeneral concept of lymphocyte functions,immunoglobulinsclasses of immunoglobulins and their basic structureGeneral concept of the complement systemAntigen-antibody reactions and their effectsTypes of hypersensitivity reactionsImmunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmunity,transplantation of tissues (organs) and their rejectionsH.L.A. (human leukocyte antigen) system.

STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BLOOD VASCULAR SYSTEM

Structure of large, medium and small arteries and veins, and its physiological implicationsVarious types of capillaries and sinusoidsStructural basis of transvascular exchangesGeneral structural features of atriaventriclesconducting tissuescardiac skeleton and valves of the heart, and their relationship to cardiac functionBlood supply of the heart.

FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE

Functions, amount, distribution and factors governing distribution and principles of measurementComposition of intracellular and extracellular fluidRegulation and disturbance of water and electrolyte balanceRegulation and disturbance of the pH of blood and acid-base balanceThe physico-chemical principles of buffer solutionosmosisosmotic pressurecolloidscrystalloidsand Donnan equilibriumoxidation and reduction.

HOMEOSTASIS

General principles of the homeostatic mechanisms of the major functional systems.

BASIC CONCEPTS OF GENES AND THEIRFUNCTIONS

Laws of inheritance and common genetically determined diseases(e.g. inherited disorders of metabolism).

ENZYMES AND COENZYMES

General concepts of the chemical naturemechanisms of action,conditions for enzyme action, their diagnostic significance andclinical uses.

HOSPITAL INFECTION

INFARCTION

Definition of ischaemia and infarctionpredisposing factors.Types and fate of infarcts.

OEDEMA

Definition of oedemaanasarcaasciteshydrothorax andhydropericardium (pericardial effusion). Difference between transudate and exudateTypes and pathogenesis of oedema.

THROMBOSIS

Definition of thrombosis and thrombusPathogenesis of thrombosis.Types of thrombosisarterialvenousante-mortem and post-mortem.Fate of thrombi and effects of thrombosisDisseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

EMBOLISM

Definition of embolism and an embolusTypes and effects of embolism.

COMMON LABORATORY TESTS

Significance of the laboratory tests related to the functioning of the liver, kidney, thyroid, and heart.

PHYSIOLOGY OF EXCERCISE

Effects on the body of moderate and severe exercise.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Basic functions of the nervous system.
Sensory: sense organs and receptorssomatic sensation detection and transmission.
Motor: initiation and control of voluntary movementscontrol of muscle tone, posture and equilibrium.
Reflexes: monosynaptic stretch reflexespolysynaptic withdrawal reflexesgeneral characters of reflexes.
Autonomic nervous system: overall functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and autonomic reflex activity.

Spinal cord

External morphology, meninges and blood supply of the spinal cord. Relationship of the “segments” to vertebrae at different agesInternal structure of the spinal cordorganization of the grey and white matterVariations in the structure of the grey matter at different levels and location of the important nuclei.Location of ascending and descending tracts, and their functions.Effects of injury or diseaseSpinal nervestypes and functions of a typical nerve, cervical plexus, brachial plexus, thoracic nerves, lumbar plexus, sacral and coccygeal plexuses.

Brain

Subdivisions of the brainVentricular system of the brain andcirculation of cerebrospinal fluidBlood supply of the brain.Meninges of the brainparts of the cranial dura and formation and drainage of dural sinusesFunctions of the cranial nerves.

Cerebral Cortex 
Gross organization of the cortexlocation of motor and sensory cortical “areas”Functions of various regionsBlood supply.Internal capsulelocation, fibre content and blood supply.
Hypothalamus 
Afferent and efferent connections and their functional correlations.
Thalamus
Nuclear groups, afferent and efferent connections and their functional correlations.
Basal Ganglia
Subdivisions, connections and functions and effects of lesions.
Limbic System 
Core structures of the limbic systemOther nuclei and pathways associated with the limbic systemFunctions of thalamus, hypothalamus and the limbic system.

Functional aspects of the nervous system 
Sensory activity:
 peripheral sensory receptorssensory pathwaysphysiology of pain and disorders of sensations.
Motor activity: corticospinal and extracorticospinal pathwayscerebellum and vestibular systemMotor neurons and motor unitsDisorders of motor activity, neuromuscular junction.Muscle and nerve physiology.
Reflex activity: spinal reflexes and reflex regulation of movements and posturebulbo-pontine control of posture andorientation in spaceClassification of reflexes and characteristics of reflex action.

Autonomic activity: organization of autonomic nervous system, functions and higher control.
Electroencephalogram and its usesSleep, types, physiological changes during sleepSpeech mechanism and its disorders.Cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral circulation, metabolism and functionsBlood brain and blood CSF barriersRegulation of body temperature and its disturbances.

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

Functional aspects of GITMotility of GITmastication,swallowinggastric motilityintestinal motility and gall bladder motilitySecretory activity of GITformation, composition, function and control of salivagastric, pancreatic, bile and intestinal secretionsGIT hormones controlling activities of GIT.Functions of stomach, pancreas, gall bladder and liverHepatic failure and jaundiceLiver function tests with interpretation.

NUTRITION AND DIETETICS

Balanced diet
Requisites of an adequate dietRole of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water in diet.
Minerals
Sources of calcium, phosphorous, iron, iodine, fluorine, magnesium and manganeseTrace elements and their clinical importance. Absorption and factors required for itFunctions and fate.

Disorders of nutrition

METABOLISM

Carbohydrates
Classification and dietary sourcesDigestion, absorption and utilization of dietary carbohydrates.

Control of carbohydrate metabolism and its disturbance.Regulation of blood glucose levelGlucose tolerance test.Glycogenesis, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, processes with the steps involved and effects of hormonesCitric acid cycle, steps involved, its significance and the common final metabolic pathwayHexose monophosphate shunt: mechanism and significance.

Lipids 
Classification of simple, derived and compound lipidsDietary sourcesDigestion, absorption, utilization and controlFatty acid oxidation with steps involvedKetogenesis and its significance.Lipotropic factors and their actionsLipoproteins, types and importance.

Proteins and Amino acids 
Classification and dietary sources of proteins.
Digestion, absorption, utilization and controlFate of the amino acidsUrea formation with steps involved.
Essential amino acids: functions and effects of deficiency.
Nucleoproteins : structure and metabolism.
Metabolic rate and Basal metabolic rate 
Factors influencing metabolic rateprinciples of measurement.

Calcium metabolism

Disorders of metabolism

HEART AND CIRCULATION

Development 
The development of the heart and vascular system andcommon developmental anomalies such as: septaldefectspatent ductus arteriosusFallot’s tetralogy andcoarctation of aorta.

Physiological anatomy and microscopic structure of the heart including conducting tissues

Properties of the cardiac muscles and junctional tissues.Origin and spread of the cardiac impulseControl of the pumping action of the heartCardiac cycle and accompanying changesMechanism of production of heart sounds, their location, characters and relationship with cardiac cycleThe normal electrocardiogram and characters of its various componentsSignificance of its parts, voltage and time calibrationprinciples of methods of recordingelectrocardiographic leads and general information obtained from ECGElectrocardiographic interpretation of abnormalities of rhythmconduction andmyocardial damage and of ionic changes in body fluid.Normal heart rate and its regulationNutrition of the heart.Cardiac output, amount, distribution, measurement and controlCardiac index and cardiac reserveAssessment of functions of the cardiovascular system.

Vascular system
Laws of haemodynamics governing flow, pressure and resistance in blood vesselsArterial blood pressure, measurement and regulationVasomotor system and control of blood vesselsCharacters of arterial pulse andvenous pulseSignificance of central venous pressure.Structure and functions of the arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veinsMechanism of haemorrhage and shock.Coronary, cutaneous, splanchnic and peripheral circulation.

BLOOD
General properties and compositionStructure, formation (production), functions and fate of red blood